The following remote work statistics will paint you a picture of how the workforce has changed and how working from home is becoming the norm.

The global pandemic shut down many organizations and businesses, some of which never recovered and had to close their doors permanently.

Others had to quickly make changes to their workforce if they planned to stay in business.

That’s when the state of the workforce changed forever. 

The concept of working from home isn’t new to the workforce, but it is bigger and better than ever.

Let’s face it, people have been working from home prior to the industrial revolution.

It wasn’t until then that people started working together to perform various work tasks. 

During the industrial revolution is when working outside the home in collectives in dedicated working spaces, or offices.

Basically, working from home was a “normal” way of life for many until after the industrial revolution where the paradigm shifted.

Moving forward several years to the 1980s, we saw the beginning of the digital revolution.

This is when networking systems became a reality.

Along with this idea, the world of alternative working situations was reignited. 

While working from home wasn’t a big deal in the 1980s, Jack Niles, a NASA engineer manufactured the term “telecommuting” in 1973. 

The term telecommuting came before the modern remote work ideal began, which was at the turn of the millennium.

At this time, a few selected workers (5) at IBM were given the opportunity to test the efficacy of telecommuting.

By 1973, a team of 2000 workers were working from home.

Let’s transition into 2020 where a Gartner survey revealed that 74% of finance leaders said they would permanently shift their on-site workforce to remote positions post-pandemic.

That said, there are still organizations that resist remote work and there are jobs where face-to-face services are necessary.

According to a June 2022 Gallup survey, 8 in 10 workers are working as remote or hybrid (some on-site and some from home) workers.

After polls and surveys that show how there was a rise in productivity and job satisfaction, the remote and hybrid working ideals as a permanent solution is gradually becoming the “new normal.

Let’s get into the statistics that will mold the workforce in 2024 and beyond.

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Key Remote Work Statistics 2024

  • In 2020, research showed that there were three times more remote jobs when compared to pre-pandemic figures.
  • Almost three out of four employees would quit their existing job for one that allows remote work.
  • Data from 2021 shows that enterprise spending on business cloud infrastructure services came to $178 billion.
  • In 2018, Owl labs revealed that 44% of companies don’t offer remote work options.
  • A 2019 report shows that remote workers in the United States worked remotely full-time 66% often than the average global remote worker.
  • The number one benefit of remote work, according to remote workers, is the flexibility and freedom it provides.
  • Remote work job listings have been fluctuating since the March 2022 peak when over 20$ of paid job listings were for remote work positions.
  • Despite some pushback among management, 85% of managers think that remote positions will become more prominent and normal. 
  • A Gartner survey shows that the most adopted remote work technology is the extended usage of collaborative platforms. 
  • 2022 statistics show that employees working from home save an average of 65 minutes each day.

General Remote Work Statistics

Remote Work Statistics

This section of the article will address some general remote work statistics for your reading pleasure.

1. In 2020, Research Showed that There Were Three Times More Remote Jobs when Compared to Pre-Pandemic Figures.

Before the COVID-19 pandemic hit, remote work accounted for 4% of all jobs in the United States.

As of 2020, during the since the pandemic, remote work makes up over 15% of all job opportunities in the United States. 

The most recent data tells us that 16% of companies all over the world are fully remote.

Furthermore, the Owl Labs State of Remote Work report revealed that 56% of companies in the world allow remote work.

(Owl Labs, U.S. Census Bureau)

2. Almost Three out Of Four Employees Would Quit Their Existing Job for One that Allows Remote Work.

A study showed that in 2017, 74% of employees claimed that they would quit their current job for a company that offers options to work at home.

The data was calculated via trends in technology and the usage of office automation tools. 

The study concluded that the tools used, and the flexibility of remote work contributed to workers wanting to have remote jobs.

In fact, about 69% of workers say they think that technology does make them more productive at work. Another 25% think that technology will replace their positions.


3. Data from 2021 Shows that Enterprise Spending on Business Cloud Infrastructure Services Came to $178 Billion.

Organizations spent $178 billion on cloud infrastructure services to aid networking, databases, storage, and other components for remote and hybrid jobs.

These upgrades and services are also necessary for on-site jobs but are especially useful in remote work.

Cloud services in the workplace are primarily used on the platform as a service ideal (PaaS), which includes IoT (Internet of Things), analytics, database, etc.

Also, this information doesn’t include the spending related to SaaS (software as a service).


4. In 2018, Owl Labs Revealed that 44% of Companies Don’t Offer Remote Work Options.

The most recent data revealed 44% of companies aren’t allowing remote work.

The same study show3ed that 56% of companies are offering fully remote or hybrid solutions for employees.

As mentioned, 16% of organizations are fully remote and 40% are hybrid, which means they allow hybrid and remote work.

These figures are from 2018, so they have likely grown some since the pandemic, but we can see that the remote and hybrid work options were already on the path to significant growth before the pandemic.

It’s been revealed that 25% of all professional positions became remote in 2022 and that number is expected to increase into 2023 and beyond. 

(Owl Labs 2018)

5. A 2019 Report Shows that Remote Workers in The United States Worked Remotely Full-Time 66% Often than The Average Global Remote Worker.

A 2019 Report Shows that Remote Workers in The United States Worked Remotely Full-Time 66% Often than The Average Global Remote Worker.

This Owl Labs data from the 2019 report revealed that 66% of those who were working from home in the United States worked full-time.

This figure is higher than the overall global average of workers who worked full-time in remote positions. 

The global average is 16%, according to the study.

Also, another 62% of employees said they worked remotely at least occasionally.

The Owl Labs 2019 study included a survey of 1,202 people who worked remotely and how often they worked remotely. 

For perspective, 38% reported that they worked on-site.

(Owl Labs 2019)

6. The Number One Benefit of Remote Work, According to Remote Workers, Is the Flexibility and Freedom It Provides.

A 2021 Gartner survey of over 10,000 digital workers from APAC, Europe, and the United States showed that 43% of respondents said that flexible work hours was the primary reason for increased productivity.

Another 30% said that it was the reduced or no commute time and 27% said they liked the extra work hours. 

More benefits cited by remote workers in the survey were more available modern technology and additional technology and devices (26%), change in location or space (26%), less time in meetings (19%), lower supervision (9%), and other (1%).

It’s worth noting that 20% cited that their productivity had not increased. 

(Gartner 2)

7. Remote Work Job Listings Have Been Fluctuating Since the March 2022 Peak when Over 20% of Paid Job Listings Were for Remote Work Positions.

March 2022 saw its peak in remote paid job listings at 20%.

In January 2021, there were fewer than 10% paid remote job listings on LinkedIn.

A sudden decline occurred in November 2022 when only 14% of remote work job listings on LinkedIn were posted. 

This data is exclusively about LinkedIn job listings, but there’s also some debate about the productivity levels when people work alone and those who work with others on-site.

There is now some slippage among large corporation CEOs and hiring managers who think that remote work could be undermining a more cohesive, productive on-site workplace culture. 

Does this mean that remote jobs will go on the decline in 2023 and beyond?

Most statistics show growth and better productivity, but will a shift occur?

(LinkedIn Pulse)

8. Despite Some Pushback Among Management, 85% of Managers Think that Remote Positions Will Become More Prominent and Normal. 

Even with pushbacks from some managers who are skeptical about remote work and the benefits of it, six out of seven managers believe that hybrid teams with a mix of in-office and remote workers are the wave of the future. 

There are many business and professional jobs that can easily and more efficiently be conducted in a remote setting.

There are also jobs that require employees to be on-site working face-to-face with clients, customers, and coworkers. 

Most remote positions will be primarily for professionals, but there are also some entry-level jobs in careers like customer service and data entry that can also be conducted remotely from home.

(TECLA 2019)

9. A Gartner Survey Shows that The Most Adopted Remote Work Technology Is the Extended Usage of Collaborative Platforms. 

In fact, Gartner’s 2021 survey reported a 44% rise in collaboration tools usage since 2019.

Almost 80% of employees were using collaboration platforms and tools in their jobs in 2021.

That was up from just more than 50% of all workers from a previous Gartner survey in 2019.

Collaboration tools embrace the use of software programs and apps that help companies, and their employees streamline brainstorming and the creative process of doing business.

You may know collaboration platforms such as Slack,, HubSpot CRM, and GoToMeeting, but there are others used by businesses across the world.

These tools can be downloaded, used online, or through a mobile app.

That means they can go everywhere the user goes. 

(Gartner Newsroom 2021)

10. 2022 Statistics Show that Employees Working from Home Save an Average of 65 Minutes Each Day.

2022 Statistics Show that Employees Working from Home Save an Average of 65 Minutes Each Day

How do they save 65 minutes per day by working from home?

They spend less time on their work commute, and less time getting ready to go to work.

This figure is if the employee has one preschool child. 

Except for employees with high school aged children, those with children of any age and those with no children saved at least an hour each day by working at home.

Those with high school children reported that they save just less than an hour by working from home. 

How did they spend their “extra time”? According to data, most spent more time on the job at 40.7%.

Other activities included leisure indoor time (television, gaming, etc.) at 19.7%, outdoor activities or exercise (13.5%), home improvement and chores (16.2%), and childcare (9.9%)

This data comes from a sample of 32,641 respondents who worked from home during the pandemic.

(Annual World Back Conference on Development Economics 2022)

Security Measures Statistics

This section will discuss a few security measures that are commonly taken for remote workers.

Without these security protocols, the worker and the company could be at-risk of cybersecurity attacks.

11. According to March 2021 Data in The United States, only 43% of Remote Workers Working from Home Knew They Were Using a VPN.

VPN stands for virtual private network.

This allows remote workers to work without giving away their IP address, which can be hacked to access personal and confidential files from the worker’s computer.

Using a VPN helps to prevent issues that could potentially cause harm to a company.

Most large to medium companies use VPN technology for remote workers. 

However, another 38% of remote workers said they weren’t using a VPN.

Another 19% said they didn’t know if they were using a VPN when working from home.

If the company for which you are working from home sent your computer to you, it’s likely a VPN is already installed.

The user may need to activate it, so you would know.

If you’re working remotely using your own desktop or laptop, the company would have sent you information about installing, downloading, and activating a VPN.

It’s unusual not to know if you’re using a VPN. 

(Statista 2)

12. Of the 57% of Organizations that Have a Remote Workforce Working at Least Two Days per Week, 94% Allow Remote Access to The Company’s Data and Apps Needed to Conduct Work Tasks.

While this seems simple enough on the surface, they are allowing access from both unmanaged and managed devices, which means not all of the computers, tablets, or mobile phones belong to the company.

Only 17% of these companies permit remote access from exclusively company-managed laptops. 

Only 9% of businesses use all five of the must-have security protocols and protections to prevent Internet cyber-attacks.

This is concerning since in 2021, more than 10,000 malicious files were found every day.

Also, 100,00 new malicious sites were found. 

If the remote work ideal is to survive and thrive, companies and workers need to be safe, secure, and well-protected against hackers and attacks.

(Check Point)

13. Interestingly, 26% of Organizations with Remote Workers Don’t Have an Endpoint Solution for Detecting and Stopping Ransomware Attacks. 

Automatic ransomware detection and prevention software is one of the five security protocols that help stop attacks at the endpoint.

This issue has become increasingly more challenging, according to more data from Check Point.

Ransomware attacks were increased in 2021 by 93% year-over-year. 

Therefore, having an endpoint solution for detecting and stopping ransomware may be more important than ever.

When Check Point asked 1200 security professionals endpoint security measures can do in cases of ransomware, only 16% of them said that they can do everything expected of them.

Another 26% said that endpoint security measures can’t do any capabilities mentioned. 

Obviously, the endpoint security issue is one still being debated among cybersecurity experts. 

(Check Point) 

14. Of Corporations that Allow Mobile Corporate Access, only 12% Said They Use Any Kind of Mobile Threat Defense App.

Check Point researchers have been watching the rise of mobile malicious attacks since 2020.

In 2020, 97% of companies experienced mobile attack threats.

Another 46% of companies experienced one worker who downloaded a malicious application from a mobile device

It’s hard to imagine that 12% of corporations that allow access to their corporate data via mobile use a mobile threat defense app/solution to protect their workers and their company assets. 

It’s also surprising that due to the strict regulations about maintaining privacy and security across Internet and networking devices, that more companies aren’t using some kind of solution to protect their clients, users, workers, and their confidential assets. 

Could it be due to the technological expenses they have had to go to for allowing remote access in the first place?

(Check Point)

15. Only 11% of Companies Said They Use No Methods for Secure Remote Access to Corporate Applications.

Only 11% of Companies Said They Use No Methods for Secure Remote Access to Corporate Applications.

What’s included in secure remote access solutions to help to avoid ransomware or malicious attacks?

VPN technology, MFA options, ZTNA, or other device risk checking.

Here are some figures related to the secure solutions used by corporations for allowing remote access to their files and applications.

  • 73% said they use a VPN connection, which is a virtual private network that doesn’t track you.
  • 46% of them said they use MFA, which is multi-factor authorization that ensures the person logging in is supposed to be there.
  • 18% of companies are using device risk posture check solutions.
  • 16% claim to be using Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA).

It’s crucial for businesses to know that they need to mitigate the risk of attacks and of giving unauthorized access to outsiders who wish to do harm.


16. Only 31% of Organizations Use Solid Methods to Protect Their Business Data from Being Leaked.

It’s astounding that 31% of organizations fail to use sound methods to prevent unauthorized access that can result in data leaks.

Without something in place to prevent it, even an employee could intentionally or unintentionally leak company data.

That’s shocking and potentially catastrophic. 

It’s also a non-compliance issue that can result in more issues that will cost the business a lot of money due to a breach or leak.

The money that is spent on recovery, penalties, and reputation damage could be saved with a preventative solution.

Some businesses are using methods to prevent sensitive and confidential data from being leaked.

Here is how some are doing it.

  • 43% are using disk encryption on the endpoint devices.
  • 42% are scanning email and office applications for sensitive information.
  • 30% are using methods for scanning files for sensitive data and content.

This tells us that while a few companies are using sound protocols to protect their data, more aren’t doing nearly enough to do this.

It’s not as if these tools are overpriced or challenging to install, download, or manage.


17. Global End-User Spending for Public Cloud Services Is Expected to Reach Almost $600 Billion During 2023.

In 2021, spending for end-user public cloud services accounted for $410.9 billion, according to Gartner.

This growth is expected to achieve spending of around $600 billion in 2023.

This does show us that there are some optimistic figures related to how companies plan to be more involved in data loss prevention (DLP) across the enterprise, integrated, and cloud-focused sectors. 

Companies are heading in the market direction of making sure their data is protected.

DLP can help make email more secure, offer endpoint protections options, and give a business an edge.

As the remote worker sector grows, the need to protect privacy and have security across all work applications is vital.

(Gartner 2022)

Employers & Remote Work

In this section, we’ll share a few remote work statistics related specifically to the impact on employers. 

18. In an April 2020 Gartner Press Release, It Was Revealed that Three in Four Chief Financial Officers Planned to Shift Their Workforce to Permanent Remote Positions Post-Pandemic.

Gartner, Inc. conducted a survey of 317 CFOs and financial leaders in March 2020.

This study revealed that 74% of them planned to shift at least 5% of their on-site workers to permanent remote work even after the pandemic.

According to the study, a remote workforce comes with financial benefits, which will help companies manage their costs post-pandemic.

Many organizations lost money because of the pandemic; therefore, it makes sense that they would want to find ways to recover from financial losses.

(Gartner Press Release 2020)

19. 27% of Companies Have Implemented New Hybrid Work Meeting Etiquette.

According to Microsoft, 27% of companies have created new rules for hybrid meeting etiquette to make sure all attendees feel engaged and included.

Moreover, 43% of remote employees said they don’t feel included in the meetings.

Therefore, 27% is still a pretty low percentage of those willing to change.

The idea behind the hybrid work environment is that it requires new norms to make sure the time spent with coworkers and supervisors is meaningful and intentional.

When employees were asked about the biggest challenge in the hybrid work construct, 38% responded that it’s hard to know when or why to go to the office. 

In contrast, only 28% of organizations have implemented new team norms for the hybrid workspace. 


20.’s CEO, David Rietsema Said that “Companies Can Save up To $11,000 Per Employee in Terms of Overhead Costs if They Switch to Remote Work.”'s CEO, David Rietsema Said that "Companies Can Save up To $11,000 Per Employee in Terms of Overhead Costs if They Switch to Remote Work."

Rietsema continued, “This is because companies with remote workers’ pay less in overhead costs such as utilities and resources for in-office employees as well as just needing less office space.”

He also noted that some companies might be able to move to fully remote, eliminating the need for an office. 

According to Rietsema, companies can also save on turnover since employees who get to work from home are staying with companies that allow them to work remotely.

Also, Global Workplace Analytics confirms that a typical employer can save about $11,000 per year for each person working remotely just half the time.

This data comes from 2020, quoted material from Dave Rietsema, and Global Workplace Analytics.

(, NPR)

21. While Most Companies Don’t Pay Remote Workers for Work-Related Expenses, Some Do Pay for Or Reimburse for Certain Expenses. 

In most instances, unless the state in which you live requires it, the company for which you work remotely won’t reimburse your office expenses.

That said, you can take many expenses off when you do your taxes each year. 

As companies are striving to save money on rent and utilities that come with an office space, they don’t reimburse remote workers except for around 10% of those that will pay for home Internet bills.

Remember, companies are still trying to recover from the lockdowns.

Only one in five companies cover expenses for remote employees’ office equipment (computer, laptop, printer, etc.).

Even fewer will pay partial or full rent and utilities.

As we mentioned, these work-related costs are tax deductible, so be sure to take those deductions that aren’t reimbursed. 

There are also companies out there that provide your computer or laptop for work, but those are also rare.

(CNBC, StrongDM)

22. Even Though 83% of Employers Believe that There Are Ethical Issues Regarding Monitoring Remote Employees, 78% Still Use Monitoring Software. 

In a collaboration between Pollfish and ExpressVPN, a survey of 2,000 employers and 2,000 employees working remotely or in a hybrid situation revealed some interesting results.

For instance, employers responded that they feel there are ethical concerns regarding monitoring employees, 78% were using monitoring software in 2021.

One in three remote employees don’t believe they are being actively monitored by their employers.

Another 15% responded that they didn’t know that was possible Most (56%) of remote employees said they felt stressed and anxious about being surveilled by their employers. 

Because this happens, 41% of employees wonder if they are being monitored and 32% said they take fewer breaks due to the potential of being monitored. 

An interesting tidbit about monitoring: 37% of employers have used stored recorded calls, emails, videos, and messages for firing remote employees. 


Statistics from the Employee Point of View

This section will address remote work statistics from the employee point of view. 

23. Research from 2022 Suggests that Remote Workers Ask for Less Sick Leave. 

Working from home meant fewer workers took sick days.

A 2020 survey of remote workers in the United States, employees felt that their employers would frown up sick days since they were already at home.

In China, remote employees also took fewer sick days. 

Two examples of employers that gave their employees some additional wellness days off include Hootsuite and LinkedIn.

However, companies have had their challenges with knowing when an employee needs a sick or wellness day or time off since in the remote setting they may not speak with the employee for a day or more. 

Better management has helped with the ordeal of people needing mental health, wellness, or sick days.

(Financial Post)

24. In 2021, The Most Popular Workspaces for Remote Workers in The United States Were Their Own Home Offices.

Therefore, nearly three-quarters (73%) of remote workers in the United States set up their own home offices.

The second most popular remote workspaces were the bedroom and dining room at a 39% tie.

The sofa/couch wasn’t far behind at 38%. 

According to the 2021 data, 31% of remote workers enjoyed the coworking space ideal, while the kitchen came in at 29%.

Do you prefer to work at a connected restaurant or coffee shop?

If so, you would be in the 25% of respondents who said that was their favorite work spot.

The last two in the list of popular spaces for remote work are the outdoors (24%) and the closet (21%).

(Statista 3)  

25. A Recent Stanford University Study Revealed that 49% of Remote Workers in The United States Have a Dedicated Space as Their Workroom. 

A Recent Stanford University Study Revealed that 49% of Remote Workers in The United States Have a Dedicated Space as Their Workroom. 

We learned from Statista that the most popular space for remote workers in the United States was their own home office.

A Stanford University study showed that only 49% of remote workers in the United States have a dedicated workspace. 

The other 51% said they work from their bedroom or some other communal space in their home (kitchen, dining room, etc.).

Having a dedicated space or a home office is important to the remote worker.

You need a place free from distractions, noise, and interruptions.

Another discovery made during the global lockdowns.

That discovery was that workspace comes at a premium.

That doesn’t mean in costs, but in privacy as well. 

The fact that the workspace was, and still is highly in-demand may explain a lot about why groups decided to rent out space for coworking.


26. Research from 2021 Concluded that Active Work Hours and Log Times Accounted for 47% of Suspected Surveillance of Remote Employees. 

The most suspected surveillance activity by employees includes active work hours and log times, which is common when ensuring the hours and log times are correct for payroll.

In second place at 37%, employees suspect that employers monitor their outbound and inbound emails.

The third most suspected surveilled activity by employees involves their time spent on websites and the websites they visit.

They also suspect their messaging and chat logs are monitored at 33%. 

Other activities that employees suspect employers of surveilling include real-time screen monitoring, productive and non-productive hours, file access, transcribed calls, occasional screen captures, and apps and time spent on them.

One in six employees didn’t realize that employers can monitor their online activities, and one in three said that if their employer is surveilling them work on a computer, there are things they would be embarrassed for their employer to see.


27. In a 2021 Owl Labs Survey, 71% of Respondents Claimed It’s Simpler to Give Presentations to A Group via Virtual Meetings than It Is to Give Presentations in Person.

In a 2021 Owl Labs Survey, 71% of Respondents Claimed It's Simpler to Give Presentations to A Group via Virtual Meetings than It Is to Give Presentations in Person.

For people who delivered presentations remotely during the pandemic, 71% said it’s easier to present in the virtual environment than it is in person.

Another 70% said that presenting in virtual space is less stressful. 

Are virtual presentations effective?

Yes. In fact, 67% of meeting participants said that virtual presentations are just as productive as in-person meetings

Respondents who participated in virtual meetings say it’s easier to contribute to the conversation at 66%.

Another 66% said they think that it makes participation seem more equal than in-person meetings. 

Only 15% said that they thought virtual meetings are not as productive as in-person meetings.

Overall, 64% of employees who worked at home during the lockdowns said that they felt the best meeting method was via the hybrid video conferencing calls.

(Owl Labs 2021)


Do Remote Workers Get Paid Less?


Remote workers don’t get paid less.

In fact, the average full-time remote worker makes more than those who work on-site by $2,500 and $4,000 per year.

Are Remote Workers Really Happier?

There are studies that suggest that remote workers are happier than on-site workers.

In one survey, 57% of respondents who work remotely claim to be satisfied with their jobs compared to 50% of on-site workers.

However, loneliness seems to be a challenge to remote workers among 19% of them.

What Are Some Benefits of Working Remotely?

Remote employees enjoy a more flexible workday, which means they also have more free time with their families or to do things they enjoy doing.

Remote employees also save time and money over commuting to an on-site job.

Since employees are happier when working remotely, they are also more productive.

As for employers, the benefits include savings in overhead costs, having more access to a bigger talent pool, and an increase in productivity.

What Are Some Things a Person Needs to Work Remotely?

To become a remote worker, you’ll need to have access to high-speed internet, a working, reliable computer with the necessary software, a webcam for video conferencing, and online collaboration software.

Are There Challenges to Know About in Remote Work?

Yes. Working remotely comes with a few challenges like issues with communication, difficulties in time management, challenges in staying motivated, and there is sometimes a lack of team bonding.


Overall, remote work statistics signify that working from home is expected to keep growing for years to come.

There are likely to be fluctuations in growth over the years as it has been in the past. 

While there are organizations that will continue to offer remote work full-time, part-time, or a hybrid option for those who wish to use it.

So, there will be some level of remote work in the coming years.

The hybrid work ideal is expected to experience growth along with remote work. 

Many companies are making changes and implementing better conditions, tools, and resources for their remote workers.

The goal is to build a happier, healthier, more productive workplace.

All-in-all, remote work, working from home, and hybrid working options are here to stay. 

If you’re a person seeking remote work, these statistics should help you better understand what employers are looking for and what you need to succeed.

If you’re on the fence about remote work, do your research and find out if you qualify to work at home.

You also have other options like hybrid work where you can work from home sometimes and on-site sometimes.

If you’re a company seeking remote workers, these statistics should help you understand what remote employees are thinking.

You can grasp what makes employees happier and what concerns them about working from home. 


World BankBBCCheck Point
Financial PostGartnerGartner 2
Gartner 2Gartner Newsroom 2021Gartner Press Release 2020
HRDiveLinkedIn PulseMatchr
MicrosoftNPROwl Labs
Owl Labs 2018Owl Labs 2019Statista
Statista 2Statista 3StrongDM
TECLA 2019The LaddersU.S. Census Bureau